Commonly Used Terms

These terms are commonly referred to in documents and other communications within Tulare County Association of Government's (TCAG) functions as a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO), Regional Transportation Planning Agency (RTPA), and Council of Governments (COG).


AB 69 Assembly Bill 69, 1972. Merged three existing departments, creating Department of Transportation, which includes the Department of Public Works, the Division of Highways, and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). 

AB 140

Deddeh Act, 1988. Provided a bond issue for one billion dollars to fund capital improvements for local streets and roads, state highways, and exclusive public mass transit guideways.

AB 402

California Transportation Reform Act, 1977. Established processes for State Transportation Improvement Programs and California Transportation Commission. Reorganized financial and institutional structure by which California runs transportation programs. Consolidated the State Highway Commission, State Transportation Board, State Aeronautics Board, and California Toll Bridge Authority into the California Transportation Commission.
AB 872 Assembly Bill 872, 1999. Authorized local agencies to spend Federal and State matching funds in current State Transportation Improvement Programs for eligible work prior to allocation by the California Transportation Commission.
AB 1012 Assembly Bill 1012, 1999. Intended to accelerate project delivery through staff  minimums, reporting, procedures, fund appropriation and fund reallocation.
AB 1475 Assembly Bill 1475, 1999. Required Department of Transportation, in consultation with the Department of the California Highway Patrol, to establish and administer a Safe Routes to School construction program program, and to make grants available to local agencies to accomplish such construction.
AB 2928 Traffic Congestion Relief Act, 2000. Provided funding for transportation projects that would improve traffic mobility and relieve congestion, connect transportation systems, and provide for better goods movement.
Active Transportation Program (ATP) The Active Transportation Program was created by Senate Bill 99 (Chapter 359, Statutes of 2013) and Assembly Bill 101 (Chapter 354, Statutes of 2013) to encourage increased use of active modes of transportation, such as biking and walking.
Americans with Disability Act (ADA) Federal legislation defining the responsibilities of and requirements for transportation providers to make transportation accessible to individuals of all abilities.
Advance Construction

Smoothing out project programming levels by using State resources to fund projects in advance of receiving Federal participating funds through the annual Obligation Authority (OA). 

(Retirement of/Conversion of)
Allowance for (reduction in) current-year Federal Obligation Authority (OA) reimbursement for which State resources were expended in advance.

Aeronautics Account Funds the Aeronautics Program which promotes the use of existing airports by assuring adequate air service for small- and medium-sized communities, overseeing a statewide system of safe and environmentally-compatible airports that are integrated with other surface transportation systems and evaluation of statewide aviation needs. Principle sources of funds include a seventeen-cent/gallon excise tax on aviation gasoline and a two-cent/gallon excise tax on jet fuel. Supports the "fair Share" transfer to the State Highway Account equal to a pro-rata portion of planning costs; state operations, or the cost of administering the Aeronautics Program; reports and studies required by the Public Utilities Code 21632; grants to Local Agencies with qualifying airports; and Acquisition and Development (A&D) for aeronautics facilities.
Allocation The distribution of funds to a specific project or group of projects, or statutory distribution based on formula.
Allocation Capacity The level at which State or Federal capital project costs can be programmed using cash resources available (determined through the fund estimate process).
Alternative Fuels The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels as methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohol. Mixtures containing 85 percent or more (but not less than 70 percent as determined by the Secretary of Energy by rule to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels. Includes compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohols derived from biological materials, electricity, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines by rule is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security and environmental benefits. 
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Commonly referred to as the Stimulus or the Recovery Act, an economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress in February of 2009 and signed into law by President Barack Obama on February 17, 2009.
Apportionment Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 established annual apportionment levels for each Federal funding category: Surface Transportation Program (STP); Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ); Bridge Replacement (BR). Funding can remain available for use up to 4 years.
Area Sources Small stationary and non-transportation sources of air pollution that are too small or numerous to count as point sources for individual control, such as dry cleaners.
Article XIX An Article of the State Constitution, designates how State taxes on motor fuel and motor vehicles may be used for streets, highways, and fixed guideway transit projects. Excludes funding for maintenance and operating costs for mass transit power systems and mass transit passenger facilities, vehicles, equipment, and services. 
Attainment Demonstrations A State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision which describes how an area will meet air quality standards before its attainment date.
Average Annual Daily Trips (AADT) The total volume of traffic on a highway segment for one year divided by the number of days in the year.


Brominated Flame Retardants (BFR) Widely used in plastics, foams, textiles, many electrical appliances, and building materials such as house walls, roofs, and parking decks. Increasing amounts of BFR residues have been detected in humans and the environment.
Build/No-Build Test A conformity test which demonstrates that the total emissions from the projects in a transportation plan or program (the "build" scenario) will be lower than emissions that would result if the projects were not built (the "no-build" scenario).
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) A bus-based mass transit system. A true BRT system generally has specialized design, services, and infrastructure to improve system quality and remove the typical causes of delay. Sometimes described as a "surface subway," BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of light rail or metro with the flexibility, lower cost, and simplicity of a bus system.


California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) of 1970 Requires that State agencies regulate activities with major consideration for environmental projection
California Transportation Commission (CTC) The body established by AB 402 to advise and assist the secretary of the Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency and the Legislature in formulating and evaluating State policies and plans for transportation programs. 
Capital Improvement Program (CIP) 7-year program to maintain or improve traffic Level of Service (LOS) and transit performance and to mitigate impacts identified by the Congestion Management Program (CMP).
Capital Outlay  Cost of construction of transportation facilities and acquisition of right-of-way. Excludes cost of engineering and right-of-way support costs.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless gas that largely results from the incomplete combustion of fuel. CO is one of three pollutants linked to motor vehicle emissions that are regulated by the Clean Air Act.
Clean Air Act of 1970 A federal law designated to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the public from airborne contaminants known to be hazardous to human health.
Clean Air Act Amendments The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the national air pollution control program is actually based on the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are the most far-reaching revisions of the 1970 law, and is the most recent version. 
Code of Federal Regulations A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50  titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation.
Community Impact Assessment (CIA) Evaluates the impacts that a project may have on community, including neighborhoods and farmland.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Natural gas compressed to a volume and density that is practical as a portable fuel supply. It is used as a fuel for natural gas powered vehicles. 
Conformity Finding A Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) verification that the emissions produced by a plan or program are consistent with the goals of a State Implementation Plan (SIP). Conformity is generally determined by either an emissions budget test or a "build/no-build" test, and a demonstration that Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) will be implemented in a timely fashion.
Congestion Management Process (CMP) Systematic process for managing congestion. Provides information on transportation system performance and finds alternative ways to alleviate congestion and enhance the mobility of people and goods, to levels that meet state and local needs.
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) A new funding program established by Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) specifically for projects and programs that will contribute to the attainment of a national ambient air quality standard. The funds are available to non-attainment areas to reduce ozone and carbon monoxide based on population and pollution severity. Eligible projects will be defined by the approved State Implementation Program (SIP). State statutes make Regional agencies responsible for administering the CMAQ funds.
Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) Involving all stakeholders in the development of a project to ensure that a project fits its physical setting and preserves scenic, aesthetic, historic, and environmental resources while maintaining safety and mobility.
California Transportation Improvement Plan System (CTIPS) A computer database used by Caltrans and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to input and track Federally funded transportation projects. See Local Programs Accounting Management System (LPAMS).


Dedicated Funds Any funds generated specifically for transit purposes and which are dedicated at their source (e.g., sales taxes, gasoline taxes, and property taxes), rather than through an allocation from the pool of general funds.
Demand Response A non-fixed route, non-fixed schedule vehicle that operates in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator or dispatcher.
Disadvantaged Communities Areas with either a median household income of 80% or less than the state median household income or that fall within the top 20% of disadvantaged communities as identified by CalEnviroScreen.


Emissions Budget Conformity Period The conformity period following the transitional period in which the emissions budget test is the sole test for conformity. The period begins when a 15 percent State Implementation Plan (SIP) Revision is approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Emissions Budget Test` A conformity test in which Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) demonstrate that the emisions from projects in a transportation plan or program will not exceed a State Implementation Plan's (SIP's) emissions budget.
Emissions Factor (EMFAC) California's model for estimating emissions from on-road vehicles operating in the state. EMFAC is used as a starting point for developing plans to meet air quality standards and for assessing the impact of motor vehicle emissions regulations on emissions and air quality.
Emissions Inventories A complete list of the sources and amounts of pollutant emissions within a specific area and time interval.
Federal Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (FSTIP) Prepared by Caltrans per the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), includes all highway and transit projects funded under Title 23 and the Federal Transit Act. It is the global funding document incorporating programming for Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Transit Improvement Programs (TIPs), State Transportation Improvement Programs (STIP), State Highway Operation and Protection Programs (SHOPP), and local rural Federal aid work.
Environmental Impact Report (EIR) A study of all the factors which a land development or construction project would have on the environment in the area, including population, traffic, schools, fire protection, endangered species, archaeological artifacts, and community beauty. Many states require such reports be submitted to local governments before the development or project can be approved; if the governmental body finds that there is no possible impact, the finding is called a "negative declaration."
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Report developed as part of the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, which details any adverse economic, social, and environmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which Federal funding is being sought.
Environmental Justice Assures that services and benefits allow for meaningful participation and are equitably distributed.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and others.
Escalation Factors Factors provided by the Department of Finance to reflect the increase or decrease of future capital and non-capital transportation costs used for State Transportation Improvement Programs (STIP) and State Highway Operation and Protection Programs (SHOPP) programming. Also called "inflation factors."
Executive Order An order from the executive branch of government, either Governor or President.


Federal-Aid Highway Program Transportation financing programs created by Federal legislation. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) identified 64 Highway Trust Fund programs, some of which have "set asides" for specific purposes.
Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) A plan developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 24 months after a State Implementation Policy (SIP) is found deficient. A FIP provides strategies for attainment, but does not eliminate the state's responsibility to develop an approvable SIP. 
Federal Minimum Allocation Minimum amount of Highway Trust Fund money returned to states. This is 85 percent of the state's share of total amount paid into the fund by all states.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Administers Federal transit funds, allocates directly to local agencies. 
Federal Transportation Improvement Program (FTIP) A capital listing of all transportation projects proposed over a 4-year period within the planning area of a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). Prepared to implement projects and programs listed in the Regional Transportation Plan, and is developed in compliance with State and Federal requirements. Projects are not drawn from the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) and State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP).
Fine Particulate matter (PM 2.5) Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM 2.5). A micron is one millionth of a meter.
Fiscal Constraint Making sure that a given program or project can reasonably expect to receive funding within the time allotted for its implementation.
Fiscal Year (FY) For California, the Fiscal year is the accounting period beginning July 1 and ending June 30. The Federal Fiscal Year begins October 1 and ends September 30
Fixed Route A term applied to transit service that is regularly scheduled and operates over a set route; usually refers to bus services.
Floodplain Risk and Location Hydraulic Study Analyzes the potential for impacts that a project may have on flooding.
Formula Capitol Grants Federal transit funds for transit operators; allocation of funds overseen by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA).
Fund Estimate The fund estimate is a 4-year estimate of State and Federal funds, for transportation purposes, that are expected to be available for State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) programming. The California Transportation Commission (CTC) uses the fund estimates as the basis for programming projects into the STIP. The fund estimate is produced based on trends and existing law. The creation of the fund estimate requires many significant assumptions. Should any of the key assumptions require revision at a later date, the programming levels displayed in the fund estimate will also need to be revised.


Geographic Information System (GIS) A computerized data management system designed to capture, store, retrieve, analyze, and display geographically referenced information. A system of hardware, software, and data for collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating information about areas of the Earth. For Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) purposes, GIS is defined as a highway network (spatial data which graphically represents the geometry of the highways, an electronic map) and its geographically referenced component attributes (HPMS section data, bridge data, and other data including socioeconomic data) that are integrated thorough GIS technology to perform analyses. From this GIS can display attributes and analyze results electronically in map form.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
Guideway A permanent facility, or structure, that dictates the route and course of a vehicle with or without operator guidance.


High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes (HOV) A high-occupancy vehicle lane, also known as an HOV lane, is a restricuted traffic lane reserved at peak travel times or longer for exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers, including carpools, vanpools, and transit buses
Highway System Network of streets which carry automotive vehicles on local, arterial, ramps, and freeway-type facilities.
Highway Trust Fund Federal user-fees on gasoline, etc., go into this fund and are used to reimburse states for Federal-aid projects.
Historic Architecture Survey Report (HASR) Evaluation of historic structures in the project study area.
Historic Resource Evaluation Report (HRER) Evaluation of certain human-made features (canals, etc.) in the project study area.
Hotspots A poorly venitlated area, such as a tunnel or intersection, where mobile source emissions (usually carbon monoxide or PM-10) are particularly high.
Hydrocarbons A precursor of ozone in addition to nitrogen oxides (NOX). Hydrocarbons are also known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or reactive organic gases (ROGs). Until recently, most efforts to reduce ozone have focused on controlling hydrocarbons.
Hydrology and Water Quality Study Analyzes the increase in storm water runoff likely to occur and the potential impacts on water quality a project may have.
Hydromodification Management Plan (HMP) Controls post-development peak storm water runoff discharge rates and duration.


Information Practices Act (IPA) Places specific requirements on State agencies in the collection, use, maintenance, and dissemination of information relating to individuals.
Initial Site Assessment (ISA) Evaluates potential for encountering hazardous materials in the project study area.
Intermodal The ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation.
Intermodal Facilities and Systems Management (ITMS) Decision support system that allows transportation planners to evaluate the relative performance of intermodal transportation investment alternatives for a corridor of statewide significance and system perspective. Intermodal facility refers to a transportation element that accommodates and interconnects different modes of transportation. Intermodal facilities include, but are not limited to, highway elements, coastal, inland, and Great Lakes ports, canals, pipeline farms, airports, marine and/or rail terminals, truck terminals, and intercity bus terminals. Intermodal transportation facilities serve intrastate, interstate, and international movement of goods and passengers. Intermodal system refers to a transportation network for moving people and goods using various combinations of transportation modes.


Level of Service (LOS) A qualitative assessment of a road's operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service means an indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be provided by, a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of service indicates the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility. Refers to a standard measurement used by transportation officials which reflects the relative ease of traffic flow on a scale of A to F, with free-flow being rated LOS-A and congested conditions rated as LOS-F.
Light Rail A streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights-of-way, or exclusive rights-of-way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level boarding.
Local Programs Accounting Management System (LPAMS) Provides appropriation management and tracks expenditures for local assistance projects. Extracts data from California Transportation Improvement Plan System (CTIPS) to process allocations.
Long Range Transit Plan (LRTP) A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and consensus on a region or state's transportation system, and serving as the defining vision for the region's or state's transportation systems and services. In metropolitan areas, the plan indicates all of the transportation improvements scheduled for funding over the next 20 years.


Matching Funds The share of funds provided by the State or local applicant to supplement the Federal share of funds to finance a Federal project. Match does not imply a 50/50 share.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) An organization designated by the Governor as a forum for cooperative decision making by principal elected officials of a general-purpose local government. Federal provisions require an MPO in urbanized areas.
Minor Project A minor capital outlay consisting of construction projects or equipment acquired to complete a construction project estimated to cost less than $750,000. The California Transportation Commission (CTC) allocates a fiscal year level for this category with specific allocation approval delegated to the department. Minor project is further segregated into two categories: Minor A, which includes construction projects with an estimated contract value between $117K - $750K; and Minor B, which consists of construction projects with an estimated value of less than $117,000. Does not include projects of a State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) or State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP).
Mobile Sources Motorized vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, and other modes of transportation.
Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) Signed into law by President Obama on July 6, 2012, MAP-21 funds surface transportation programs at over $105 billion for Fiscal Years 2013 and 2014 and is the first long-term highway authorization enacted since 2005.
Multimodal The availability of transportation options using different modes within a system or corridor.


National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Federal standards that set allowable concentrations and exposure limits for various pollutants.
National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) Established a national environmental policy requiring that any project using federal funding or requiring federal approval, including transportation projects, examine the effects of proposed and alternative choices on the environment before a federal decision is made.
Natural Environmental Survey/Biological Assessment (NES/BA) Evaluation of native species and habitat found in project study area.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) A precursor of ozone in addition to hydrocarbons. Recent Environmental Protection Agency policy has begun to emphasize control of NOX.
Notice of Availability (NOA) A formal notice, published in the Federal Register, that announces the issuance and public availability of a draft or final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Notice of Preparation A document stating that an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) will be prepared for a particular project. It is the first step in the EIR process.


Obligation A commitment by the Federal government to reimburse the States the Federal share of Federal Aid projects. Obligation occurs when the Federal Highway Association (FHWA) has approved the Plans, Specifications, and Estimates (PS&E) for a project prior to advertisement of the construction contract.
Obligation Authority (OA) The ceiling Congress  places on all commitments of apportionments for any given year. Individual States receive OA in proportion to their apportionments and allocations. From a fund estimate point of view, OA is the prime determinant of usable Federal funds. OA is only available for the current year. Typically, Congress provides the OA limits at less than the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act's (ISTEA's) total annual apportionment level.
Offsets A compensation for the expansion or construction of a polluting stationary source. Before such expansion/construction begins, an offset permit is required to show that emissions will be reduced at another facility to offset new emissions increases. Under sanctions, the offset requirement would be increased two-to-one.
Ozone (O3) The major component of smog. Ozone is formed when hydrocarbons an dnitrogen oxides (NOX) combined in the presence of sunlight. Ground level ozone is a harmful pollutant, while stratsopheric ozone protects life on earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. O3 is one of three pollutants linked to motor vehicle emissions that are regulated by the Clean Air Act.


Paratransit Comparable transportation service required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with different abilities who cannot easily benefit from fixed-route transportation systems. A variety of smaller, often flexibly scheduled and routed transportation services using low-capacity vehicles, such as vans, to operate within normal urban transit corridors or rural areas. These services usually serve the needs of persons that are not sufficiently fulfilled by standard mass-transit services. 
Particulate Matter (PM) Solid or liquid particles that measure less than 10 (or 2.5) microns. A micron is one millionth of a meter. PM10 is one of three pollutants linked to motor vehicle emissions that are regulated by the Clean Air Act.
Plans, Specifications, and Estimates (PS&E) Final Project documents and cost estimates prepared for construction contracts.
Precursors The essential ingredients that form a secondary pollutant, e.g., nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are precursors in the formation of ozone.
Programming Process of selecting and scheduling high-priority capital outlay projects for development and implementation.
Project Study Report Project Study Reports are engineering reports whose purpose is to document agreement on the scope, schedule, and estimated cost of a project so that the project can be considered for inclusion in a future programming document such as the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP).
Project Approval and Environment Document (PA&ED) The beginning phase of a project which includes feasibility studies and environmental studies, concluding with the selection and approval of a project alternative and final environmental document.


Reactive Organic Gases (ROG) Volatile organic compounds (VOC), excluding methane, found in the atmosphere which are capable of producing radicals upon reaction with common atmospheric oxides and radicals; these compounds are often responsible for positive feedback cycles involving the production of ozone.
Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP) A list of proposed transportation projects submitted to the CTC by the regional transportation planning agencies candidates for STIP funding. The individual projects submitted to the CTC by local jurisdictions, then evaluated and prioritized by the regional agency for submission to the CTC. The RTIP has a four-year planning horizon, and is updated every two years.
Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) State-mandated documents to be developed biennially by all RTPAs, describing existing and projected transportation conditions, needs, alternatives, and their consequences. the RTP also serves as the Metropolitan Planning Organization's (MPO's) long-range plan.
Right of Way (ROW) Purchase of property for transportation purposes.


Sanctions Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sanctions are imposed when a State Implementation Program (SIP) revision is found deficient or not submitted. Sanctions can include two-to-one offsets for stationary sources, or a cutoff of highway funding.
Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) A vehicle with just one occupant. The reduction of SOVs is a major goal of many transportation projects.
State Highway Account (SHA) The SHA is the largest of the fund estimate accounts. Principle sources of funds include excise taxes on motor vehicle fuels, truck weight fees, and the Federal Highway Trust Fund. Supports the a variety of departments, including Local Assistance, Maintenance, Operation, Program Development, and Project Support in addition to administrative support.
State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP) Projects program created by State legislation that includes State highway safety and rehabilitation projects, Seismic Retrofit projects, land and building projects, landscaping, some operational improvements, bridge replacement, the minor programs, and generally those types of projects that Caltrans as the owner-operator of the system uses to maintain the integrity of the system. Unlike a State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) project, SHOPP projects may not increase roadway capacity. SHOPP is a four-year program of projects, adopted separately from the STIP cycle. The 1989 State gas tax increase partially funds the program, but it is primarily funded through the "old" 9 cents/gallon State gas tax and from Federal funds.
State Implementation Plan (SIP) A plan containing the strategies to achieve attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and maintain air quality levels once attainment is achieved..
State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) After considering the Regional Transportation Improvement Programs (RTIPs), rural Regional Transportation Planning Agency (RTPA) comments and input from public hearings, the California Transportation Commission (CTC) adopts the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) which provides the delivery schedule of projects for the upcoming four years.
Stationary Sources Relatively large, fixed sources of emissions, such as factories or power stations.
Subventions Financial assistance to local governments (local assistance, guideway funds)


Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) The smallest geographically designated area for analysis of transportation activity. A zone can be from one to ten square miles in area. Average zone size depends on the total size of the study area. 
Transportation Accounting and Management System (TRAMS) Developed to meet reporting needs and to respond effectively to the requirements resulting from the implementation of the California Fiscal Information System.
Transitional Conformity Period Conformity period when ozone non-attainment Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) must perform both the emissions budget test and the build/no-build test for hydrocarbons. The transitional period begins on the date when the 15 percent Reasonable Further Progress State Implementation Program (SIP) revision was due and ends when that SIP revision is approved.
Transportation Control Measures (TCM) A measure that alters personal travel patterns or traffic flow to reduce emissions. As an umbrella label, TCM includes Transportation Systems Management (TSM) and Transportation Demand Management (TDM).
Transportation Curriculum Coordination Council (TCCC) A Federal Highway Association (FHWA) led study of pooled funds for training management and development under the National Highway Institute (NHI).
Transportation Development Act (TDA) Specifies how the 1/4 percent of local sales tax for transportation purposes is distributed. It created the Transportation Planning and Development (TP&D) account.
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) Enacted on June 9, 1998 as Public Law 105-178, authorizing the Federal surface transportation programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the 6-year period between 1998 and 2003.
Transportation System Management (TSM) A process-oriented approach to solving transportation problems considering both long- and short-range implications, which is service- and operations-oriented toward low capital and control measures.


Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) The sum of distances traveled by all motor vehicles in a specified region.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Another name for hydrocarbons, a precursor of ozone.


Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) Process requiring justification of every dollar (and person-year) of an organization's or program's proposed budget for the budget year. The assumed program level for the budget year is zero, thus intensive justification and critical review of all components is required before approval.